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Year Published: 2015
While most of us are generally unaware how critical they are, standards make twenty-first century libraries, information services, and publications of all kinds work. In this environment, everyone working with systems, circulation, resource sharing, digital initiatives, preservation, collections or special collections, and even public services can benefit from learning more about standards.
An improved understanding of standards, on which librarians rely, will lead to greater application and adoption of these technologies. By better understanding how standards are developed, more librarians can turn to the standards process when they have ideas for how to improve their work. The Critical Component: Standards in the Information Exchange Environment paints a complete picture of information standards in 11 chapters and 9 case studies, which provide:
The ongoing educational, research, and entertainment missions of libraries and other cultural organizations rely on standards that underlie interoperability and data exchange, unique identifiers and authority control, ontologies, barcodes, patron management, resource sharing, discovery, web-based services, software, digital collections, preservation, metadata management, bibliographic control, and resource layout. Greater understanding of and appreciation for these information standards that permeate our work and our institutions will only help us and our institutions.
- an overview of standards and their benefits to libraries and other cultural organizations
- the process of developing, approving, and maintaining formal standards
- players in the information landscape
- basic standards concepts
- specific purposes of standards, including identifiers, description, discoverability, and preservation
- an overview of how new standards are marketed and adopted
- ways that individuals can get involved in standards work
- a look at the future of standards
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. The Value of Standards for Information Exchange
Todd A. Carpenter
Chapter 2. How Formal Should We Be? The Standards Continuum and the Standards Development Pipeline
Case Study. The Digital Object Identifier: From Ad Hoc to National to International
Chapter 3. The Information Standards Landscape
Case Study. Everything Old is New Again: ISSN in the Digital Environment
Regina Romano Reynolds
Chapter 4. Basic Standards Concepts
Case Study. Accessibility for Everyone
Chapter 5. This Thing Is Not That Thing: The Role of Identifiers in Content Management and Distribution
Case Study. I2 and ISNI: Expanding the Use of an Identifier to Serve Multiple Needs
Chapter 6. Describing Resources for Discoverability and Reuse
Diane I. Hillmann
Case Study. Development of Dublin Core
Chapter 7. Discoverability: The Ultimate Goal
Case Study 7. Providing Appropriate Access
Chapter 8. Ensuring Digital Preservation for Future Generations
Case Study. Portico: Using Standards for Scholarly Content Preservation
Kate Wittenberg, Sheila Morrissey, and Amy Kirchhoff
Chapter 9. Marketing Your Standard from Idea to Brand to Practice
Heather Staines and Robert Boissy
Case Study. EPUB 3: The Birth and Adolescence of an Unusually Visible Standard
Chapter 10. Getting Involved with Standards
Case Study. How One Standard—COUNTER—Drove the Need for Another—SUSHI
Oliver Pesch and Peter Shepherd
Chapter 11. The Future Need for Standards Will Only Expand
Todd A. Carpenter
About the Authors
Thomas Baker is professor of information science at Sungkyunkwan University in Seoul, Korea, and chief information officer of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. He is the cochair of the DCMI Usage Board, which he founded in 2001, and cochair of the DCMI Architecture Forum. From 2006 to 2009 he cochaired the Semantic Web Deployment Working Group of the World-Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and from 2010 to 2011 he cochaired the W3C Library Linked Data Incubator Group.
Mark Bide was until March 2014 executive director at EDItEUR, the global trade standards body for the book and journal supply chains. The organization is probably best known for the ONIX family of descriptive metadata communication standards and for the management services it provides to ISO standards, including ISBN, ISTC, and ISNI.
Robert Boissy is manager of account development for scholarly publisher Springer, where he has held various positions in licensing and marketing for more than ten years. Prior to this, Robert worked for fifteen years in a variety of technical and support positions for a subscription agency. He has been president of the North American Serials Interest Group (NASIG), participated on various NISO working committees, and has been involved in standards and best practices development for the library and information community his whole career.
Marshall Breeding is an independent consultant providing services to libraries and related organizations, and the former director for Innovative Technology and Research at Vanderbilt University. Through hands-on practice and research, he has accumulated extensive expertise on the major products for library management and end-user discovery and service delivery and become the leading expert on the library technology industry, including the companies that produce integrated library systems, discovery services, link resolvers, and other business applications or user portals. He is also the founder and editor of Library Technology Guides, which provides authoritative information about the companies, products, and services used by libraries, archives, and related organizations.
Todd A. Carpenter is executive director of the National Information Standards Organization (NISO). Todd brings to this role more than twenty years of publishing, digital content distribution, business development, and library community experience.
Adam Chandler is electronic resources user experience librarian at Cornell University Library. He was the chair of the NISO Improving Open¬URLs Through Analytics (IOTA) Working Group and cochair of the NISO Standardized Usage Statistics Harvesting Initiative (SUSHI) Working Group.
Laura Dawson is product manager for ISNI and Intota at ProQuest. She is a twenty-seven-year veteran of the book industry and a founding member of the ONIX Committee, continuing to serve on the BISAC Metadata Committee, which further develops the ONIX standards.
Janifer Gatenby works on metadata related projects for OCLC in the OCLC Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) office in Leiden, the Netherlands. From 2010 to 2104 she led the team that specified and developed the ISNI database and management system. She has been influential in the establishment of many international standards including ISNI, ISO Holdings, ISO data elements, ISO 23950, SRU, ISO 2146 Registry services for libraries, openURL Request Transfer Message, and ISCI, among others.
Lisa Gregory is digital projects librarian at the North Carolina Digital Heritage Center. Previously, she worked for the Digital Information Management Program at the State Library of North Carolina. She attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s School of Information and Library Science, where she was a Digital Curation Fellow.
Cindy Hepfer was continuing e-resource management and cataloging librarian at State University of New York at Buffalo; she is now retired.
Diane I. Hillmann is partner at Metadata Management Associates, consultants devoted to the development of intelligent metadata management solutions and services, particularly in library and digital library environments. She was a working librarian at Cornell University for nearly thirty years, an early participant in the development of the Dublin Core, and publishes regularly on metadata, semantic mapping, and new directions in the use of technology in libraries.
Cynthia Hodgson is an independent information consultant, writer, and editor with more than twenty years of experience as a corporate librarian, library manager, and information technology manager, and more than a decade as a consultant. She has taught graduate-level courses in the Schools of Library and Information Science at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of South Carolina and is the current editor of NISO’s Information Standards Quarterly magazine and Newsline e-newsletter.
Bill Kasdorf is vice president and principal consultant, Apex Content Solutions, general editor, The Columbia Guide to Digital Publishing, a member of the IDPF Board, and Metadata Subgroup lead, IDPF EPUB 3 Working Group. He is a member of the W3C Digital Publishing Interest Group, coordinating its work on metadata; he chairs the BISG Content Structure Committee, which publishes the BISG EPUB 3 Support Grid and publications relating to e-books and EPUB; he is a member of the IDEAlliance working group that created the PSV standard; he is an active member of the group developing the EDUPUB standard; and he is past president and an active member of the Society for Scholarly Publishing (SSP). He is the recipient of the SSP Distinguished Service Award, the BISG Industry Champion Award, the IDEAlliance/DEER Foundation Luminare award. He writes and speaks widely on EPUB, XML, metadata, content management, publishing workflows, and related topics.
George Kerscher is secretary general, DAISY Consortium; senior officer, Accessible Technology, Learning Ally; and current president of the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). He coined the term “print disabled” to describe people who cannot effectively read print because of a visual, physical, perceptual, developmental, cognitive, or learning disability, and believes that in the Information Age access to information is a fundamental human right. He has been devoted to making published information fully accessible to persons with print disabilities since 1988 and considers standards and implementations that are fully accessible as the best strategy to fulfill those goals.
Amy J. Kirchhoff has been the archive service product manager for Portico since 2006. She is responsible for creation and execution of archival policy and oversees operation and development of the Portico website. Prior to her work at Portico, Amy was director of technology for JSTOR and also served as a member of the shared software development group at ITHAKA. She has published articles on Portico’s preservation methodology and policies in several publications including most recently Learned Publishing and The Serials Librarian.
Ted Koppel is Verso ILS product manager at Auto-Graphics, Inc. He has been active on standards committees in the United States since 1994, serving on at least a dozen committees and working groups, and chairing several of them. He was the cochair of the NISO Content & Collection Management Topic Committee from its inception in 2007 until early 2010. He is a strong believer in standards and the standards development process: When the process is successful, we all benefit.
Nettie Lagace is the associate director for Programs at NISO, where she is responsible for facilitating the work of NISO’s topic committees and development groups for standards and best practices, and working with the community to encourage broad adoption of this consensus work. Prior to joining NISO in May 2011, Nettie worked at Ex Libris, where she served for eleven years in several library and information provider-facing roles, most recently product director, working on link resolver, electronic resource management, and scholarly recommender software and services
Sheila Morrissey is senior research developer at ITHAKA. Her work on the Portico digital preservation service includes the development of tools for the technical assessment and transformation of digital objects. She has written about both the technical, disciplinary, and institutional challenges of maintaining the stability of complex digital objects across varying technical platforms, contexts, and communities of creation, practice, and use. She is an active participant in standards development, management, and scholarly recommender software and services.
Norman Paskin is the founding director and managing agent of the International DOI Foundation. He was part of the STM Task Force on Information Identifiers, which was one of the originators of the DOI system, and convenor of the ISO working group that standardized the DOI System as ISO 26324.
Oliver Pesch is chief strategist at EBSCO Information Services, where he helps set direction for EBSCO’s products. He serves as cochair of NISO’s SUSHI Standing Committee and as a member of the Executive Committee for Project COUNTER.
Regina Romano Reynolds is director, US ISSN Center and Program Manager, ISSN Section, Library of Congress. She has extensive experience in national and international standards for serials, including participation in the 2007 major revision of the ISSN standard and on NISO’s PIE-J Working Group that developed a set of recommended practices for the presentation and identification of e-journals. She is involved in modeling serials for BIBFRAME and is a member of the ISSN Review Group, an international effort to harmonize ISSN rules with FRBR, RDA, and ISBD.
Peter Shepherd is an independent publishing consultant and director of COUNTER. He has been involved in STM publishing for more than thirty years, having worked as a publisher with Wiley, Pergamon, Elsevier, and Harcourt.
Heather Ruland Staines is vice president publisher development for SIPX, Inc. (formerly Stanford Intellectual Property Exchange) where she is exploring the nexus of scholarly communication and educational technology in the classroom and in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Prior to her role at SIPX, she worked for Springer Science + Business Media as Global eProduct Manager for SpringerLink and Senior Manager eOperations. She is active in many industry associations, serving on the Board of the Society for Scholarly Publishing, the Futurelab Committee for the STM Association, and the American Library Association’s ALCTS CRS Education, Research and Publications Coordinating Committee. She holds a PhD in Military and Diplomatic History from Yale University.
Kate Wittenberg is the managing director of Portico. Previously, Kate served as project director, Client and Partnership Development for Ithaka S+R, where her innovative work with libraries and publishers helped to develop resources, products, and services that enabled these communities to grow as vibrant digital organizations while remaining true to their core missions. Kate brings a deep understanding of issues at the intersection of digital technologies, academic libraries, and scholarly publishing to Portico. She spent most of her career at Columbia, where she was the editor-in-chief of Columbia University Press until 1999, and went on to found and direct the Electronic Publishing Initiative at Columbia (EPIC) for the university. EPIC was a pioneering initiative in digital publishing, and a model publishing partnership for libraries, presses, and academic IT departments.